Naučna istraživanja

Tehničko obrazloženje spomenik Prijedor

Tehničko obrazloženje

Uvod i simbolika:

Investitor je izrazio želju za izradom idejnog projekta Spomenika žrtvama genocida u Prijedoru. Lokacija spomenika je u gradu Chicagu, tačnije u jednom od gradskih parkova, koji će biti izabran u dogovoru sa gradskim vlastima. Budući da je lokacija relativno imaginarna, izazov je bio da spomenik bude kompatibilan sa različitim konfiguracijama terena i okoline. Pozicija spomenika, zajedno sa kružnom stazom oko njega, je ca 1 metar niža od okolnog terena. Razlog ovome je da spomenik ne bude previsok u zelenilu jednog parka, a spuštanjem nivoa posjetilaca prema zemlji prostor također dobija na intimi i tišini. Ansambl spomenika i njegova neposredna okolina dobijaju svoj mali omeđeni prostor te se time djelomično izdvajaju u svoj mali mikrokosmos unutar parka. Spomenik je kružne osnove što simbolizuje univerzalnost, svetost  i vječnost. Simbolika kruga je višeznačna a označava mjesto gdje nema početka i nema kraja. Bol koju su preživjele žrtve genocida diže se na nivo univerzalne kosmičke boli, te opominje vječno na sva zla koja je ljudska ruka u stanju da napravi. Poruka spomenika je pored dokumentovanog izvještavanja o stvarnom genocidu koji se dogodio na području Prijedora, i opomena čovječanstvu da se takvo zlo više nikad ne dozvoli. Tri figure napravljene od pločastog cor-ten B čelika, materijala koji se (svjesno) mijenja kroz godine, razdvojene velikim zidom koji stremi prema nebu, simbolizuju jednu od mnogih ubijenih i razdvojenih prijedorskih porodica. Otac, bespomoćan klonule glave, sa jedne strane, i majka sa djetetom ispružene ruke prema ocu, osjete njegovu prisutnost i kroz zid koji ih dijeli od „zemlje do svemira“. Slika koja zasigurno nikoga neće ostaviti ravnodušnim, te će potaknuti prolaznike da više saznaju o tom tužnom i mračnom trenutku ljudske historije.

Obavezan dio ansambla čini i sadnja čempresa (Cupressus Sempervirens) u neposrednoj blizini spomenika. Osim što vizuelno čini pandan visokom zidu i upotpunjuje ga, također je i izuzetno snažan i internacionalan simbol vječnog života (kao što mu i ime kaže). On je jedno od najstarijih stabala na svijetu, a zbog svojih osobina prozvano je i „drvo uskrsnuća“. Nezaobilazan motiv je svih grobalja i harema, jer simboliše vječni život i duše umrlih.

 Korišteni materijali su uglavnom prirodni. Bazen sa vodom oko spomenika je obložen bijelim štokovanim mermerom, kao i kružna baza ispod spomenika, na kojoj stoje tri figure napravljene od pločastog cor-ten B čelika ili kao alternativa od kovanog željeza. Cor ten B čelik je čelik koji je već dostigao određeni stupanj oksidacije te je nakon ugradnje otporan na atmosfersku koroziju. Ipak ovo ne znači da ovaj materijal ne mijenja vizuelne karakteristike kroz godine. Njegova vrijednost je u tome što dugi niz godina mijenja nijanse crvene, smeđe i narandžaste boje sve do stvaranja potpunog zaštitnog sloja. U prvoj fazi dolazi do rastvora oksida gvožđa što može prouzrokovati manje bojenje okolnih ploha, što se može spriječiti nanošenjem zaštitnih premaza u periodu oksidacije. Kružna staza kao i dolazna i odlazna staza su popločane granitnim pločama dimenzija 8x8x8cm a okolina spomenika je pokrivena kvalitetnom travom. Četiri klupe za posjetioce napravljene su od masive bijelog štokovanog mermera sa drvenim gredicama od bijelog bora lakiranim i propisno zaštićenim od atmosferilija. Ispod svake od klupa postaviti zvučnike sa ograničenim krugom dejstva preko kojih bi se neprekidno vrtila imena i godišta rođenja ubijenih. Zvuk bi bio ograničen i čujan samo za one koji se nalaze u blizini klupa. Veliki zid od spomenika je zamišljen da se napravi od transparentnog betona. Relativno moderan materijal koji spomeniku daje dozu ekskluzivnosti i suvremenosti. Alternativno, moguće bi bilo ovaj veliki zid napraviti i od natur betona ili od velike kamene gromade bijelog mermera. Međutim zbog vjerovatno prevelikih troškova prevoza i nabavke ovakvog komada kamene masive ova zadnja varijanta je manje realna. Transparentni ili tačnije translucentni beton je djelomično providan materijal i veoma interesantan sa estetskog aspekta (igra svjetla i sjene), prvenstveno zbog fiberoptičkih vlakana koja se u njega ugrađuju te prenose svjetlost sa jednog kraja na drugi. Na zid spomenika u gornjem desnom vrhu je predviđena gravura slijedeće rečenice napisane CASTELLAR fontom u odgovarajućoj veličini:

“Lest the world forgets the genocide that befell Prijedor, with all her lost sons and daughters, all humankind suffers and is made incomplete. „

Na lijevoj strani zida, 50 cm ispod nivoa ljudskog oka predviđena je metalna ploča (kovano željezo) koja obuhvata cijeli zid i poput U profila zauzima tri strane zida sa ugraviranim sljedećim tekstom (font CASTELLAR u odgovarajućoj veličini):

„This memorial is dedicated to the 3,176 innocent victims of genocide killed in the city of Prijedor, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the war that engulfed the Balkans between 1991 and 1993.  Situated here in the great city of Chicago, this memorial shall serve as an instrument of hope and peace, reminding all who would look upon it of the tragedies of the past, and the importance in guarding against future atrocities. We dream of a world devoid of the pain suffered during those dark years, and hope that future generations do not repeat the same mistakes.  Mindful, we honor  our fallen men, women and children, cruelly taken from this world and with unified voices proclaim a steady vigilance against those forces that seek to blur history.  With this common voice, both mournful and determined, we rise above the ashes of war and reverberate throughout the world, insistent that the past not be ignored or dismissed.  As an appeal to justice, and as an example for our descendants to draw strength and perspective from, we seek above all to be imbedded upon the hearts of all citizens of the world, so that each of us may live in brotherhood and peace.”

Na kraju idejnim projektom preporučuje se angažovanje stručnjaka za rasvjetu, koji bi svojim projektom dodatno pojačao vizuelni doživljaj spomenika u noćnim satima.

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Technical Explanation

Introduction and Symbolism:

An investor has expressed interest in building a monument in honor of genocide victims in Prijedor. The intention is to build the monument in the City of Chicago, more precisely in one of the city parks, which will be decided in agreement with city authorities. Since this idea is still in its beginning imaginative stage, the challenge was to find a monument that will be compatible with different terrains and environmental conditions. The position of the monument, along with the circular path around it, is about one meter lower than the surrounding terrain. The reason for this is so the monument is not too high that it take away from the beauty of the greenery around it but low enough that it feels personal, intimate and quiet. The ensemble of the monument would only highlight the beauty of the park. The vision of the investor is for the monument to be a circular base that symbolizes universality, holiness, and eternity. The symbolism of the circle is multifaceted, the circle represents a place where there is no beginning and no end. The circle also represents the revolving pain felt by the victims of genocide and it raises the level of universal cosmic pain felt around the world, a forever reminder of all the evil acts that the human hand is capable of doing. The monument's purpose is, in addition to documented reports of the actual genocide, is to remind humanity that heinous acts against humanity will never be allowed again. Three figures symbolize one of many murdered and separated Prijedor families. The figures include the helpless clone of the head of the father and the mother with the child stretched out with his arms towards his father, feeling his presence through the wall that divides them between "land and space." An image that will certainly leave no one indifferent to the realities of genocide and will encourage passers-by to learn more about this sad and dark moment of human history.

A key and necessary part of the ensemble is planting cypresses in the immediate vicinity of the monument. In addition to making the surrounding area appear grand and fulfilled, the cypress is a powerful and international symbol of eternal life. It is one of the oldest trees in the world, and due to its characteristics, it is also called the "tree of resurrection". The significance of this is that it represents the eternal life and souls of the dead.

Material and architecture:

The materials to be used are mostly natural. With a circular base underneath the bottom, the pool around the monument is covered with white stucco marble on which there are three figures made of core B steel (an alternative to wrought iron). Core B is a steel that has already reached a certain degree of oxidation and is resistant to atmospheric corrosion after installation (if maintained properly). The value of the steels is that for many years it changes between shades of red, brown and orange to the creation of a complete protective layer. In the first phase, there is a solution of iron oxide, which can cause less coloring of the surrounding surfaces. One way to protect the coloring would be to apply protective coatings during the oxidation period. The circular path as well as the incoming and outgoing trails are paved with granite slabs measuring 8x8x8cm and the surrounding area of the monument will be covered by grass. There will be four benches made out of solid white marble and white polished wooden beams lacquered and properly protected from the atmosphere for visitors to sit on. Behind each of the benches, speakers will be installed to rotate the names and years of the victims killed. The sound would be limited to those near the bench. The large wall of the monument is intended to be made of transparent concrete. Transparent concrete is relatively modern building material that gives the monument a dose of exclusivity and modernity. Although it would be possible to build this wall from natural concrete or white marble,  due to the high cost of transportation and procurement for this project, this latter variant is less realistic. Transparent or translucent concrete is partially transparent material and very interesting to look at from an aesthetic aspect (play of light and shadow), primarily due to the fiber optic fibers that are incorporated in it and the way light bounces off of it. On the wall of the monument in the top right-hand corner there will be an engraving of the following sentence written in CASTELLAR font in the appropriate size:

 
“Lest the world forgets the genocide that befell Prijedor, with all his lost sons and daughters, all humankind suffers and is made incomplete. „

On the left side of the wall, 50 cm below the human eye level will be a metal plate (forged iron) that covers the entire wall and sides of the wall with the following text engraved (CASTELLAR font in the appropriate size):

„This memorial is dedicated to the 3,176 innocent victims of genocide killed in the city of Prijedor, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the war that engulfed the Balkans between 1991 and 1993.  Situated here in the great city of Chicago, this memorial shall serve as an instrument of hope and peace, reminding all who would look upon it of the tragedies of the past, and the importance in guarding against future atrocities. We dream of a world devoid of the pain suffered during those dark years, and hope that future generations do not repeat the same mistakes.  Mindful, we honor our fallen men, women and children, cruelly taken from this world and with unified voices proclaim a steady vigilance against those forces that seek to blur history.  With this common voice, both mournful and determined, we rise above the ashes of war and reverberate throughout the world, insistent that the past not be ignored or dismissed.  As an appeal to justice, and as an example for our descendants to draw strength and perspective from, we seek above all to be imbedded upon the hearts of all citizens of the world, so that each of us may live in brotherhood and peace.”

Vijesti: